SELF-OPENING ACTIONS

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Self-opening systems are a British thing —  or so they say…And yet, one of the first if not the first self-opening mechanism was patented by Antonine Lebeda, Jr. It was used to assist the opening of Lefaucheux patent break-open guns, with the fore-end permanently hinged to the action body (systeme Lefaucheux). The self-opening part of the mechanism was a spring-loaded lever that acted on a lengthwise channel in the barrel lump.

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Self-opening mechanism on a Lefaucheux-type gun by A. V. Lebeda in Prague.

 

Then came Frederick Beesley (1846-1928), who began his gunmaking career as a stockmaker at Purdey’s and opened his own business in 1878. On January 3, 1880, he obtained the British patent №31 for «hammerless self-opening spring-cocking gun». Beesley wrote to Purdey about this invention even before the patent was granted — on December 18, 1879. By January 1880 they prepared an agreement, by which all rights under the pending patent passed to Purdey for 20 pounds and the royalty of 5 shillings for each of the first 200 guns. Purdey offered to pay 35 pounds of royalty in advance, and obtained full rights for a single payment of only 55 pounds. Then Beesley, as Purdey’s assignor, patented his system also in Belgium (patent №52603 of September 20, 1880) and the U.S. (patent №250189 of  November 11, 1881). The first gun on the new system was finished by Purdey in 1880.

Yet, Beesley did not invent his system completely from scratch. It was based on the principle of the rebounding lock. Rebounding locks first appeared on hammer guns, with two Wolverhampton lockmakers, Thomas Rigby and John Stanton, competing for the title of their inventor: there was only 3 days difference in dates between their 1867 patents! By the way, Beesley referred to Stanton’s patent in description of his own invention. Some time later Beesley, also as an assignor, obtained the British patent №823 of February 14, 1883, and the U.S. patent №10281 of February 6, 1883. These patents clarified some nuances of the system. It is not clear why he needed the «second edition» of the patents; probably it was only to extend the patent protection time.

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Frederick Beesley (1846 – 1928)

 

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John Stanton’s rebounding lock. Image by dogsanddoubles.com

 

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Image from Beesley’s patent.

 

 

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Fig. 1

 

From the point of view of mechanics, Beesley’s action is a system of a V-shaped spring and a tumbler that rotates around the axis A (Fig.1). When compressed, the spring acts on the upper pin on the tumbler with the force of P1, and since this force is applied at a shoulder L1, it creates torque of M1 = P1xL1 on axis A. The lower arm of the spring acts on the lower pin of the tumbler with the force P2, which creates torque M2=P2xL2 in the direction opposite to M1. When the spring, compressed by the cam (5), is released, the tumbler will turn around the axis A until the torques M1 and M2 are equal (Fig. 2). This simple principle is the basis of Beesley-Purdey action.

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Fig. 2

 

Figure 1 illustrates the moment when the lock has been fired. On Figure 2 you can see the moment after the gun has been opened. The mainspring is then set free and brings the tumbler to full cock. The mainspring is compressed with the gun is closed (Figure 3).

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Fig. 3

 

The lower arm of the mainspring is connected to the tumbler by an additional link, known as swivel (7). The swivel adjusts the trajectories of travel of the tumbler (1) and the mainspring (3), and also compensates for the fall in torque on the last part of the tumbler’s motion due to decrease of the mainspring’s pressure (the pressure is at maximum when the mainspring is fully compressed).

Новый точечный рисунок

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The Beesley-Purdey system: 1 — tumbler, 2 — sear; 3 — mainspring; 4 — bridle, 5 — cam, 6 — roller; 7 — swivel; 8 — intercepting sear; 9 — sear spring; 10 — intercepting sear spring; 11 — mainspring pin; 12 — pads; 13 — cocking rods.

 

When the gun is closed, the barrel flats press on the pads (12) that protrude from the action flats. The pads go down, rotating around their axis, and push the cocking rods (13). The cocking rods act on the cams (5), causing them to rotate and compress the mainsprings. To decrease the friction, a roller (6) is fitted into the upper arm of the mainspring. When the gun is opened, regardless of whether the locks have been fired or not, the mainsprings produce torque that is transferred to barrel flats through the system of cam — cocking rod — pad, and ensures the self-opening effect.

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7-pin Beesley-Purdey lock with lightened bridle.

 

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7-pin lock on Purdey single shot gun.

 

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A variant of Beesley’s lock with intercepting sears, 1884. Image by http://www.steniron.com

 

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A 9-pin Beesley-Purdey lock. Image by http://www.hallowellco.com

 

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A 9-pin Beesley-Purdey lock with safety catch (12) locking the sear (11).

 

Purdey made three variants of Beesley’s action. Two are known as 9-pin locks, because they have 9 clearly visible ends of screws and pins of the locks on the external side of the lock plate. One of them did not feature an interceptor, but was fitted instead with a safety catch that locked the sear. There was also a 7-pin lock, without intercepting sears and with lighter bridle. This variant was also used on the company’s single shot guns; there were only 59 of them made. The modern range of Purdey’s includes also a «pinless» variant of the Beesley’s lock, that is, the lock where all pins except the tumbler axis are made integral with the lock plate.

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A pinless Beesley type lock. Image by holtsauctioneers.com

 

There have been numerous attempts to «improve» Beesley’s patent since its invention to this day. However, I do not know of any «improved» version where the changes actually altered the basic principle of Beesley’s action. They say that Henry Atkin’s version cocks more smoothly than the Purdey’s version, because Atkin allegedly improved Beesley’s system. As a matter of fact, Atkin’s improvements have to do with the ejector linkage: in Atkin’s guns the ejector is triggered by a separate lever that is acted on by the sear. The subjective feeling of «smoothness» probably results from the fact that Henry Atkin improved the shapes of conjoining elements of the lock.

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Henry Atkin’s lock. Image by http://www.vintageguns.co.uk

 

Another original design of ejector link can be seen on the gun made in 1927 by Joseph Defourney (younger brother of Antoine Joseph Defourney) for Louis Branquaert.

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A Beesley type gun made by Joseph Defourney for Branquaert (Brussels) in 1927. The ejector link (blue arrow) is pushed by a plunger (red arrow) that is acted upon by the tumbler. Image by http://www.steniron.com

 

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The ejector link in the original Beesley lock. Image by http://www.vintageguns.co.uk

 

 

It is amazing, but even the greatest gun writers made mistakes in their description of Beesley’s action. For instance, both Greener and Burrard claimed that the system works because one of the arms of the mainspring is stronger than the other. Only in 1971 Gough Thomas (Godfrey Thomas) Garwood, in his Gough Thomas’s Second Gun Book, corrected this mistake. Mr. Garwood quoted Richard Akehurst’s Game Guns & Rifles (1969), which stated that Beesley’s action used the energy of both limbs of the mainspring at all times. This is quite evident, if you pay attention to the fact that the mainspring is free to rotate around its axis. Therefore, from the point of view of mechanics, the mainspring is an elastic lever.

With so many parts to be fitted, and so many parts that interact with each other, Beesley’s action requires the highest degree of precision in making. The mainspring is very difficult to make, due to its sophisticated geometry, and its strength has to be just right: strong enough to prevent misfires but not too strong to make worse the basic ergonomic incorrectness of having to overcome the tension of the spring when closing the gun. Still, the Beesley-Purdey system is a mechanical masterpiece that has been keeping its admirers in awe for over 130 years. Many gunmakers, including Belgian, were able to reproduce it, but only James Purdey & Sons Ltd. still makes it.

Frederick Beesley developed another self-opening system (British patent №425 of January 2, 1884, Belgian patent № 67064 of December 1, 1884, U.S. patent № 320040 of June 16, 1885).

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Drawing from Beesley’s patent №425 of January 2, 1884.

 

 

As far as we can judge from the description, Beesley’s idea was to simplify the action by replacing the cocking rod and the V-spring with an one-arm spring that would also cock the tumbler. Self-opening was a side effect of the mechanics of compressing the mainspring with closing motion of the barrels. Beesley used this system in his boxlock guns.

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A Beesley self-opening boxlock. Image from doublegunshop.com

 

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A Beesley system boxlock by Lancaster. Image from doublegunshop.com

 

 

This patent was purchased by Henry Thorn, who owned Charles Lancaster & Co. Lancaster’s gunmakers were able to adapt this principle to sidelock guns as well. Charles Lancaster & Co offered Beesley patent sidelocks, known as «Wrist-Breakers», until 1920s.

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Lancaster «Wrist-Breaker» gun

 

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«Wrist-Breaker» side locks. Image from doublegunshop.com

 

Another self-opening boxlock design was developed by Henry Tolley. He didn’t only patent his system (British patent №10101 of July 12, 1884; U.S. patent №315858 of April 14, 1885), but made a few guns on that. Evidently, Tolley’s system achieves the same ends as Beesley’s, but is much simpler.

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A boxlock by Tolley. Image by dogsanddoubles.com

 

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Tolley’s patent drawing.

 

 

Since the late XIX century British gunmakers developed numerous self-opening systems. In modern terminology some of them are classified as «assisted-opening» and «easy-opening». Among these, one can’t fail to mention the self-opening system of Henry Holland and William Mansfield (British patent № 202405 of May 18, 1922), used by Holland&Holland for their «Royal» model, and also by some Spanish companies. According to Donald Dallas, the first Holland&Holland self-opener, №30595, was finished on April 27, 1923.

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H&H Royal self-opening mechanism.

 

 

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Advertisement of the self-opening mechanism from The Field, March 22, 1923.

 

 

The principle of Holland & Mansfield self-opening mechanism is as simple as genius. A push on the action above the hinge pin naturally creates torque that tries to open the gun. This torque is created by a simple coil spring, fitted neatly between the front barrel lump and the fore-end lump.

Assisted-opening and easy-opening systems are outside the scope of this paper. I shall only say that the distinction between self-opening, assisted-opening and easy-opening designs is largely arbitrary, and not all experts agree on it. Many «assisted-opening» and «easy-opening» systems can be turned into full-scale self-openers by minor changes in schematics, or even the power of the springs.

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A Belgian self-opening system. 1 — pad; 2 — intermediate link pin; 3 — cam pin; 4, 6 — cocking lever; 5 — cocking lever pin; 7 — cocking lever spring; 8 — cam; 9 — mainspring. Red arrows show areas of cam-mainspring contact; green arrows — cocking lever-mainspring contact.

 

 

Original self-opening systems were developed not only in Great Britain, but also in Belgium. One such gun, made circa 1920s or 1930s is illustrated here. I don’t know yet who patented this action, or whether the system was patented at all, but there’s no doubt it’s Belgian. It works on the following principle. The tumbler is cocked when the gun is opened with the help of a spring loaded cocking lever (6), which turns around its axis (5). The cocking lever, however, acts not on the tumbler, but on a special protrusion on the mainspring (green arrows). When the gun is closed, barrel flats press the pads, which act on intermediate links, the links turn around their axis (2) and act on the cams (8). The cams also turn around their axis (3), and compress the mainspring (9), pressing on the other side of the same lump (red arrows). The pressure from the mainspring is passed through the system of levers to the pad and ensures self-opening effect.

This system achieves the same ends as the Beesley-Purdey system. The system of levers ensures that the effort of closing the gun is acceptable, even though it requires to overcome the pressure of the cocking lever spring (7) as well. In the Beesley-Purdey system is difficult to arrange the assembly so that all tolerances be passed on to one contact area. This makes the fitting process very demanding and difficult. In the Belgian system there is more room for the actioneer — nothing works by «pushing apart», the cam acts on the mainspring and the mainspring acts on the tumbler at a tangent, and the looseness in the cocking lever mechanism is taken out by pressure of cocking lever spring (7). In other words, in spite of its apparent sophistication, the Belgian system is easier to put together and regulate. This is, I believe, one of the reasons it exists.

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A self-opening boxlock by Defourney, «ARA» in the company’s catalogue.

 

 

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The principle of Defourney’s self-opening system: 1 – sear; 2 – tumbler; 3 – roller; 4 – mainspring; 5 – cocking lever; 6 — pad.

 

 

Two Belgian self-opening systems that deserve special attention were designed by Defourney, a box lock and a side lock. Apart from Belgium (1907 patent), Defourney had his system patented in France (patent №464.536 of November 7, 1913) and Great Britain (patent №13189 of May 29, 1914). The gem of this design is the flat mainspring (4), with one side hinged and the other leaning against the tumbler (2). The mainspring is compressed when the gun is closed. The residual pressure of the mainspring after letdown of the tumbler is siffcient to ensure self-opening effect. It’s worthy of note that Defourney used the same principle as Tolley did 13 years earlier.

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Defourney’s self-opening sidelock, «HAR» in the catalogue.

 

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Defourney’s patent drawing.

 

Новый точечный рисунок (5)11 1005

Новый точечный рисунок (6)

Defourney’s self-opening sidelock: 1 — tumbler; 2 — mainspring; 3 — cocking lever; 4 — cocking lever spring; 5 — cam; 6 — pad. The rollers are shown in red circles.

 

 

Let us consider Defourney’s self-opening sidelock system. The long mainspring (2) has one end fixed on an axis, and its other end presses against a pin protruding from the tumbler. The tumbler is cocked when the gun is opened, by a long, spring-loaded cocking lever (3). When the gun is closed, the pad (6), being pressed by the barrel flats, rotates around its axis and compresses the mainspring through the cam. The contact areas between pad and cam, and between cam and mainspring, are fitted with rollers for smoother operation.

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Francotte self-opening boxlock.

 

 

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A drawing from the catalogue of Etablissements Braekers, October 1926.

 

 

Shooting Technicana by David Trevallion and Michael McIntosh mentions a self-opening boxlock gun made by A. Francotte in 1937. The same action was used by Etablissements Braekers of Liege in the late 1920s. The tumbler is cocked in the traditional manner, by a cocking lever when the gun is opened. When the gun is closed, the pads are pushed into the action body by barrel flats, and compress the mainspring. After the tumbler is let down, residual pressure from the mainspring is acting on the barrel flats through the pads and ensures self-opening effect.

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A similar system on a gun made by Armurerie Saint-Eloi, Barlemaunt Commune.

 

 

This action didn’t enjoy much popularity. Neither did a W.C. Scott & Son patent on a similar principle. On December 3, 1878, William Scott and Thomas Baker obtained the U.S. patent №210436 for «Improvement in breech-loading guns». This patent protects a number of principles, including those where the tumblers are cocked and the mainsprings compressed by pressure of the barrel flats on the action flats in closing the gun.

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Drawing from the William Scott and Thomas Baker’s U.S. patent № 210436 of December 3, 1878. 1,2 — cocking of the tumbler (i) and compressing a coil spring in a box lock by drawing out shaft (g), acting on lump (h) on the barrel block. 3 — a side lock on the same principle; 4, 6 — variants of cocking a side lock by opening of the gun; 5 — a scheme of cocking a parallel striker gun by opening of the barrels.

 

 

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W.C. Scott & Son guns with various cocking systems according to the 1878 patent.

 

The pressure of the mainspring is pressed via the shaft to the barrel block, ensuing self-opening effect.

Russian gunmaking, apart from Beesley-Purdey system used by TsKIB, knows only one independent self-opening design. You can see it on the gun made by Tula Armory in 1934 for the All-USSR Industrial Expo, under Tula’s gunmaking patriarch Alexander Ivanov.

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A Tula Armory gun with self-opening effect.

 

Self-opening systems have proven their functionality and reliability. Most of them are newer and more technological than the Beesley-Purdey system, but none is as ingenious and neatly designed as the unsurpassable masterpiece of the prominent Victorian gunmaker.

Brancquaert and Defourny.

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Brancquaert Model 8.

 

Gun lovers all over the world like lists of «best» gunmakers and love to argue who made a better gun. In Russia, for instance, there’s an unwritten rating of Belgian makers that affects a gun’s price tag along with other factors such as condition. I don’t know who compiled this rating and what criteria they used, but I know that its value is dubious. Belgian guns of the same class by different makers, on close inspection, usually turn out to have the same quality — if not prove to be the same gun. For example, let’s look at Brancquaert and Defourny.

Both Brancquaert and Defourny figure prominently on the list of the makers that Marco Nobili’s influential work identifies as equal to Lebeau-Courally. Other names on the list include E. Bernard, C. Braekers, Britte, J. Bury, A. Cordy, Dumoulin, A. Forgeron, A. Francotte, Browning, Galand, N. Lajot, Mahillon, ML, E. Masquelier, Pirotte, F. Thirifays, F. Thonon, J. Thonon. This alone would seem to imply that they were gunmakers of the same level. However, things go a little deeper than that.

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Liege in the beginning of the XX century.

 

But let’s first look at the Liege gun trade at the turn of the XX century, when both Brancquaert and Deforuney entered the scene of best gunmaking. We can get answers for many questions from the account of Sergei Zybin, Head of the Repair and Hunting Guns Workshop of the Imperial Tula Arms Works, who was sent to Europe in 1902 to study progressive methods of making hunting guns (at least, this was the official version of his assignment). Zybin writes of Liege as a community of incalculable individual craftsmen, small shops and large, steam-powered factories, that worked together almost as a single body. There were businesses that managed to assemble large volume of guns without any sophisticated machinery, purchasing parts from more high-tech manufacturers. On the other hand, even Pieper, Liege’s biggest maker, had nearly all their guns finished by independent one-man shops.

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Sergei Zybin.

 

Wherever machinery could help, it was used — even individual craftsmen (or women: more than a third of the workforce was female on some firms) had access to steam-powered machines, with specialized businesses renting out shop floor space at affordable daily rates. Where machines couldn’t cut costs, the jobs were done by individuals at homes. Outsourcing secured the entrepreneur from strikes and such; on the other hand, self-employed craftsmen were better motivated and utilized their time and resources better. All of that fused into a flexible system that could produce any quantity of guns of every description cheaper than anywhere else.

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Shop floor at Fabrique National, Herstal.

 

Before the WWI, when the main Belgian gunmaking brands were only establishing themselves, some differences in quality could be observed, and some sort of ranking could be established. But the between-the-wars period all variation disappeared. The catalogue of H&D Folsom Arms, New York, listed over 200 various Belgian gunmakers they sold in the USA — but the valuators of American auction houses today treat all of them alike (with exceptions for Lebeau and Francotte). And, in a way, they are right — most if not all Belgian firms of the period ensured the same quality for the same money.

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Shop floor at A. Francotte’s.

 

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Shop floor at Manufacture Liegeoise.

 

 I don’t mean to say that there weren’t any artisans who were above the mass. Liege was home to a number of gunmaking stars. Hyppolite Corombelle, the engraver par excellence, who later moved to Italy to become the founder of Bologna engraving school; Nicolas Jacquet of Cheratte, a suburb of Liege, supplied best gun locks for any system including Beesley-Purdey patent; Joseph Cap made best barrels. But the names of the stars did not appear on the guns and remained unknown to the public. With the world’s economy struggling, all ambition gave way to the need to sell: under one’s own brand or some other name, complete guns or parts or some work on them, it didn’t matter.

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Beesley type side lock made by Nicolas Jacquet.

 

Now that we got a glimpse on how Liege gun trade worked, let’s get back to the heroes of the story.

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Front page of Brancquaert’s catalogue showing the Wellington live pigeon shooting grounds in Ostende.

 

Louis Brancquaert owned a gun shop at 202 Avenue de l’Hippodrome, Bruxelles, on the way to the Boitsfort Hippodrome not far from the shooting club «Tir du bois de la Cambre». Brancquaert sold hunting and pigeon shotguns, accessories, and Mullerite ammunition (made by Muller & Co, Liege), which was advertised as the best for live pigeon shooting. He also patterned and retailed «Brancquaert`s pigeon–trap» — a trapdoor cage for releasing birds for live pigeon shoots. The patent, however, was only a «brevete S.G.D.G» (see the article about Lebeau-Courally for what it means). Louis Brancquaert himself was an important figure in live pigeon shooting as shooter and acting  as secretary of at least three shooting clubs: in Bruxelles («Tir du bois de la Cambre»), Spa and Ostende. Live pigeon shooting was an expensive hobby, and provided Brancquaert with connections in the top society.

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Live pigeon shoot in Bruxelles. Early XX century.

 

In fact, Brancquaert’s fame as a gunmaker rested on live pigeon shooting. His name first caught the gunners’ eye in 1897, when Baron Raoul de Vriere, former Secretary of the Belgian Embassy in Washington, used a gun by Brancquaert to win the Grand Prix in Paris. By 1905 Brancquaert’s guns secured three gold medals, a silver cup and 30,317 Franc of prize money.

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Baron Raoul de Vriere, one of the best live pigeon shots of the late XIX century.

 

Brancquaert sold his wares all over Europe through a wide network of sales representatives: there were nine in Italy alone. His guns were of best quality only and with an option to place the customer’s monogram or crest on the trigger guard. Model 1 was a carbon copy of Purdey by Beesley’s Patent self-owner, and Model 2 copied the Holland&Holland sidelock. Model 3 was a side-plated Anson&Deeley boxlock with a single trigger; it was advertised as the company specialty, not inferior in any way to English guns of the same type. Model 4 was Model 3 with double triggers, Model 5 was a bar-action hammer gun, and Model 6 was Model 4 without side plates.  Model 7 was a three-barreled gun, with two 12 or 16 gauge smooth barrels on top and a .450 Express below; it featured a patented cocking system and a rear sight that rose automatically when the selector was shifted to the rifled barrel and went down as the action was opened.

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202 Avenue d’Hippodrome, where Brancquaert’s shop used to be located.

 

However, Brancqueart was never a gunmaker in the true sense of the word. It is not a secret that the guns he retailed were supplied to him by  Defourny.

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Antoine Joseph Defourny Jr.

 

The Defourny dynasty of gunmakers was founded by Antoine Joseph Defourny (1805-1873). He had ten children, and his two elder sons Noël Joseph (1834-1918) and Gilles Joseph (1831-1915) became gunmakers too, while another son, Jean (1850-1914) was a gun trader. Like his father, Noël had ten children, however, three of them died in infancy. But two of his surviving sons, Antoine Joseph (born April 9, 1862, died August 19, 1943) and Alphonse (1870-1948) became gunmakers, and another son, Noël Victor Jean, was the State Weaponry Controller. Gilles Joseph’s family was less numerous, with «only» five children, and two of his sons, Guillaume (1865-1916) and Jules (1871-1958) also became gunmakers.

Новый точечный рисунок

The genealogical tree of the Defourny gunmaking dynasty.

 

Guillaume Defourny worked for August Lebeau, and in 1896 opened his own business, G Defourny-Sevrin. This firm continued after his death for some time and closed in 1955. His son Georget (1900-1973) was a gun trader. Antoine Joseph Defourny Jr got married in 1891, and had seven children. Two of his sons, Joseph (1892-1976) and Noël (1897-1977) also became gunmakers. In 1895, Antoine Joseph Defourny started his first business of making «de luxe» firearms. He claimed 15 Belgian patents for various firearms improvements, but apparently never saw it necessary to protect his rights abroad. By contrast, his son Noël patented his single selective trigger (which he later fitted to many of his father’s over/unders, including the early Anson&Deeley models) first in Belgium (in 1949) and then in the USA (Patent № 2.639.972 of March 31, 1953). Antoine Joseph Defourny made a great contribution to the Belgian gun trade as an inventor. Especially valuable was his work on improving the Beesley self-opening scheme, to which I dedicated a separate chapter.

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Defourny patent self-opener.

 

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1956 Defourny over/under with Noël Defourny’s patented selective single trigger.

 

However, not all Defourny’s inventions were equally successful. An example of this is his over/under. Defourny’s first shotgun with one barrel on top of the other dates back to 1905, four years ahead of Robertson’s and Woodward’s famous patents. At the time, the over and under was still some sort of gunmakers’ terra incognita, and it shows in Defourny’s design. His decision to use the Anson&Deeley principle was justified by logic — however, it lead to complications. For instance, in order to house the cocking rods, the action frame had to have extremely thick walls. There was no room inside Defourny’s action for a normal sized striker for the under barrel. Consequently, the striker had to be very small, and its travel very short. That made it necessary to use an extremely powerful mainspring, which in turn caused quick wear of the parts.

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An early model of Defourny over/under; it was also offered by Francotte and Defourny-Sevrin.

 

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This view of Defourny’s over/under fore-end gives you an idea of how thick the action had to be.

 

Later Defourny improved his design. He used Holland&Holland type bar action sidelocks, first conventional than hand-detachable; fitted the gun with ejectors; decreased the thickness of the action, giving the gun instantly recognizable look. On Defourny sidelock over/unders the self-opening effect is so significant that Holt’s experts classify them as assisted-opening. His uncompromising war against weight was a relative success: a 12 gauge Defourny over/under tips the scales at 3.1 kg; the barrels are 71 sm. long and weigh 1.45 kg. This was made possible by 18.2 bores, which ensured 150 gram weight reduction as compared to regular 18.5 mm bore.

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Defourny over/under with Holland&Holland type detachable locks.

 

004

A page from 1938 Defourny catalogue.

 

Still, 25 years of improvement did not make the design truly successful. I believe the reason was that Defourny kept trying to build a side-by-side with stacked barrels. The schemas he used, the arrangement of parts, including the mutual location of the hinge pin, ejectors and cocking rods, followed old side-by-side patterns. In spite of that, Defourny’s over/unders had a widespread influence in Belgium, and were also built by other Belgian makers, including A. Francotte, (with whom Defourny had a joint patent for ejector cocking scheme «applicable to all weapons with tilting barrels») and Defourny-Sevrin.

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Model 4 named «Brancquaert».

 

The strangest thing about Brancquaert and Defourny is that in all those years nobody ever wondered why guns from Brancquaert’s catalogues match the guns from Defourny’s catalogues to a T — even the drawings are the same! For example, Brancquaert’s Model 1 is Defourny’s Model 27 — while Defourny’s Model 1 is Brancquaert’s Model 7. In May 2008 Christie’s auctioned a Brancquaert gun which the auction’s experts identified as «assisted opening»; in the autumn of the same year that gun was auctioned again by Holt’s, this time the experts correctly attributed it «self-opening». From the description, it was clearly Defourny’s patented self-opening system.

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Brancquaert Model 7, a.k.a. Defourny Model 1.

 

My own Eurica! moment came when I got to see Brancquaert’s Model 8 over/under. Apparently, Brancquaert managed to supply the Royal Court of Spain with one, as the catalogue contains appropriate announcement, complete with an image of the Court’s crest. But no matter who owned it, Brancquaert’s Model 8 was the good old Defourny’s design and work.

As a matter of fact, all Brancquaert’s guns known to me bear a Defourny stamp somewhere — sometimes on the action under the stock, sometimes in plain view on the barrel. Speaking of Defourny’s stamps, his «A.J.D. patent» does not signify that the mechanism in question or any part of it was Defourny’s invention. There is a subtle, but significant difference in meanings between the French words «brevete» (which means the same as the English «patented»), and «patente», which stands for permission to use a certain activity, duly paid for. Consequently, «A.J.D. patent» is only Defourny’s trade mark.

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If you know where to look, you’ll find a Defourny stamp on ever Brancquaert gun — for example, on the inside of the action.

 

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The same stamp from the shotgun assembled for Brancquaert by Joseph Defourny (Antoine Joseph Defourny`s son) in 1927. Brancquaert`s Model 1, Beesley-Purdey action. Photo: http://www.steniron.com

 

Apparently, Brancquaert, with his influence in live pigeon shooting world, was a godsend to the beginning gunmaker who only started his own shop at the age of 33 and at first did not build more than 15 guns a year. The irony was, however, that Defourny himself depended on the trade to fulfill Brancquaert’s orders.

It is highly unlikely that Defourny’s atelier had a considerable manufacturing capacity. His first shop was located in Herstal, on rue Petite Voie. After that, his address changed as many as seven times. Some of the moves could be in fact only changes in the numbering system on rue Nicolas Defrêcheux (consistently with this hypothesis, all rue Defrêcheux addresses are on the odd side of the street). But that doesn’t explain moving to Rue Champs de Foxhalle and Rue de Jupille. A manufacturing enterprise with heavy machinery necessary for full cycle gun production can hardly be expected to hop from place to place across the town every few years.

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25-27 rue Nicolas Defrêcheux, Herstal, the last address of Defourny A. J. Armourie S.A.

 

Another item of circumstantial evidence is a gravure from the 1938 catalogue, showing Defourny’s premises in 1905. Especially touching is the little detail of the small poultry yard, complete with the chicken, on the premises. The question is, at a time when  every company that actually owned a factory proudly printed a photograph of it, why would Defourny use an obscure drawing instead? The building on the right rather closely resembles one of Defourny’s actual premises at rue Nicolas Defrêcheux, and the poultry yard is probably genuine — but the rest of the drawing, with smoking factory pipes and everything, looks more like a property development plan than reality.

003

The drawing from 1938 catalogue showing Defourny’s premises in 1905. Note the poultry yard in the middle.

 

«Depended on the trade» doesn’t imply that Defourny was not a «real» gunmaker. He obviously had a staff of artisans and performed at least some works in-house. A close study of the 1938 catalogue allows us to identify Defourny’s input to his guns precisely. On Model 1 it was all parts of the mechanism that were invented by Defourny, the rear sight and the side safety. On Model 2 — side locks and ejector; model 8 — the mechanism and ejector, on Model 19 — ejector, etc.

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A contrast to Defourny’s drawing: Charles Sporcq catalogue showing a full inside view of the premises from shop floors to the store counter.

 

Defourny, just as most other small-scale makers, almost certainly never made action frames and barrel blocks, outsourcing them from bigger manufacturers such as Fabrique Nationale (FN). The evidence for this is that immediately after FN began to produce the sidelock with original cocking system, identified as «System Anson 1928» in the jubilee edition of the FN book, an identical gun appeared in Defourny’s model range. His over/unders were probably made in cooperation with A. Francotte & Co, which was a small, but a «real» full-cycle manufacture that could do everything in-house.

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FN «Anson 1928» gun and its locks. An identical gun was offered by A. J. Defourny.

 

Many details of the cooperation between Defourny and Brancquaert remain unknown, but it was beyond doubt mutually beneficent, and probably ran deeper than making guns. In 1913, Defourny became a Knight of the Order of the Crown — a high award of Belgian Kingdom, and in 1928 the Officer of the Order; in the same year he was appointed the Representative of Belgian gunmaking industry at the Milano International Exhibition. There are ten degrees in the Order of the Crown, and the Knight and the Officer are the fifth and fourth. What was unusual in it was the fact that normally gunmakers were awarded for their input in the country’s defense. Antoine Joseph Defourny never had anything to do with military arms, never had any defense contracts, and never ever worked for the government. However, Brancqueart, through his involvement in live pigeon shooting circles, had enough connections in high society to get a friend of his knighted. This is only an unconfirmed guess, but it is not improbable.

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Defourney O/U 20 gauge. Photo: http://www.pugsguns.com

 

So, this is far from the full story of Defourny and Brancqueart. But it shows the complicated relationship between various Belgian makers of the period, and demonstrates why all «lists» and «ratings» that place one Belgian gunmaker higher than another should be taken with a big grain of salt. I can imagine the confusion it all causes for beginning gun lovers and collectors. «Whom to believe?» they might ask in despair. To this I always say, don’t trust anyone except proof marks and official documents.

Lebeau-Courally. Between Truth and Fiction.

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In no country in the world is there so much interest to guns by August Lebeau as in Russia. The only explanation for this interest is the way this maker is covered by Russian gun writers.  

Let’s look at the literary sources. The second edition of Sabaneev’s Hunting Calendar (1892), doesn’t say a word about Lebeau. It states, however, that «in Belgium the best gunmaker is said to be Bodson (and not Francotte, as it is considered here), and many Belgian pigeon shots use his guns». But in 1905 the price-current of A. Bitkov’s gun shop proclaims that «August Lebeau is the newest star in the sky of artistic gunmaking, and takes place next to such great names as Purdey, Galan a Galan (the writer must have meant Holland&Holland) as their equal; his genius has been fully appreciated by the Emperors of Russia, Germany, Spain, as well as other members of Imperial and Royal families who hunt with guns made by Lebeau. Higher glory was hardly ever achieved by any other gunmaker. August Lebeau is gunmaker by appointment to the afore-mentioned royalty, and this is his best recommendation».

That’s some strong claim, but there was a little problem: «the newest star» had passed away in 1896. By 1910 many a catalogue of gun shops that dealt in August Lebeau guns — and there were a lot of them in Russia — sang praise to the «Belgian Purdey» and «famous gunmaker». The influential book Modern hunting shotguns, published in 1913, says «In all fairness Lebeau has to be considered the first maker in Liege». By then, «the first maker» had been dead for 17 years. Sergei Buturlin wrote in 1927 that «the expensive Belgian guns most loved by our hunters are (mainly pigeon guns) made by Defourney, Bodson and Lebeau». The interest to Lebeau as «gunmaker to ruling monarchs» never completely died out among Soviet shotgun lovers, and was further fueled in 1985 by V. Shostakovsky’s  article in the country’s only hunting magazine. I regret to say that even though we have since gained access to international archives and libraries, no new information on the maker has been published in all these 30 years.

9August Lebeau

August Lebeau «well deserved the respect he enjoyed among gunmakers of Liege». These words, attributed to Jules Grivolat, once the Secretary of the City Chamber of Gunmakers’ Union and the Director of the Museum of Arms in St Etienne, are quoted by Ferdinand Courally in his book. I have found no other references. According to M. Nobili, the author of the only book about Lebeau-Courally, the authority of August Lebeau was as high as that of Jules Poland, manager of the Liege Proofhouse, or Charles Francotte, President of Liege Gunmakers’ Union. The same author says that Lebeau was elected Vice-President of the Liege Proofhouse Administrative Commission (the post of the President was traditionally reserved for the Mayor of Liege), and was employed by the Ministry of Labor.

Rue Darchis 34Liege, Rue Darchis 34

His birth date and place are unknown. The company catalogues from the days of Philippe Reeves claim that the firm existed since 1865. The first evidence regarding the Lebeau brothers that has been found so far dates back to the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871. The Bordeaux defense committee commissioned one Lemoyne to purchase weapons in Belgium. Lemoyne was a small-scale merchant who traded with Senegal in items such as silk and coral, and got the job by chance — through a friend of his. He went to Liege with a huge sum of money at his disposal, and there someone recommended him the Lebeau brothers, entrepreneurs in arms. On October 6, 1870 they signed an agreement to supply Chassepot, Peabody and Snider rifles and ammunition for the total of 972,000 Franc. The Lebeau brothers claimed they were the agents of the «Peabody’s Tool» company. They received the money but failed to supply the full amount of rifles; besides, there were quality issues.  On March 1, 1871, the Civil Tribunal heard a case of Lebeau Brothers Partnership to a company called Cahen-Lyon et Cie. The brothers claimed that the defendant made and sold in Belgium counterfeit Chassepot rifles. Since the Cahen-Lyon company had some sort of agreement with the French Government, the Tribunal decided for them. On February 18, 1873 the case of Lemoyne was heard by the French National Assembly’s Subcommittee for Weapons. It turned out that the Lebeaus obtained some of the rifles for the Lemoyne’s contract from the Malherbe arms company, which was being liquidated. They purchased rifles from the liquidator at 80 Franc apiece, and sold them to Lemoyne at 118 Franc. There were also some problems with ammunition supplies from the USA. Finally, the Belgian government intervened with the deal, because Belgium was supposed to remain neutral. Lebeau denied all accusations, saying Lemoyne was a dilettante who had to be thankful he came across honest people. If they meant to cheat on him, they would have simply collected the money, gone to Italy and lived happily ever after, because the contract did not specify an execution date and the payment was made in advance. Whatever happened, the Lemoyne contract seemed to be extremely profitable for the Lebeaus, because afterwards they moved from Rue Barrieau 80 to a much more prestigious Rue D’Archis, 34 address in the center of Liege. There are also a few notary records, from which it follows that a partnership between brothers Jules and Auguste Lebeau, located at Rue D’Archis 34 (modern spelling «Darchis») was discontinued on November 23, 1876. On February 10, 1876, the same notary registered, at the same address, a limited partnership agreement between the Lebeau brothers and an investor named Charles Minette. The partnership was to exist for 15 years (from November 23, 1876 to November 23, 1890) and engage in manufacture of and trade in firearms, both luxury and military, along with «any related items».

Лебо2The notary register entry for the «Lebeau Brothers and Company» limited partnership. February 10, 1876.

Minette invested 100,000 Francs, and the brothers had in their disposal sums not exceeding 10,000 Francs. The agreement contained clauses that allowed the investor to discontinue the partnership under certain condition, for instance regular loss. According to Madame Moermanns’s data, the company did not have any manufacturing machinery and employed not more than 15 people. On November 8, 1873, the Lebeau brothers were granted a French patent № 101082 for a revolver. In 1879 they registered «The PUPPY» as a trademark. In 1881, a patent for a pocket revolver with a folding trigger was granted under this trademark, and in 1882 — a Belgian patent for a revolver and extractor. Lebeau-Courally later offered a pocket revolver with an original extracting system and a folding trigger.

21Lebeau-Courally Pocket Revolver.

78A Russian price-current from 1910 advertised this revolver as «made by August Lebeau«, even though Lebeau died in 1896.

Auguste Lebeau had two patent granted to his name: for a hammerless gun, and for an ejector. Lebeau price-currents mention the First Prize awarded to Lebeau at the International Exhibition in Philadelphia, 1876, a Gold Medal at the Universal Exhibition in Paris, 1878, and the Grand Prix at the Universal Exhibition in Antwerp, 1894. The catalogues of these exibitions are available, but the name of Auguste Lebeau can be found among Belgian participants and prize winners only once: at Antwerp, where he is styled as a hunting gun and revolver maker. The Paris Exhibition catalogue features a company called Lebeau Freres et Cie, which was indeed awarded the Gold Medal. However, there is no mention of Lebeau in the catalogue of the Philadelphia Exhibition. Here are the copies of the documents as evidence.

11List of Belgian gunmakers who took part in the 1876 International Exhibition in Philadelphia.

2123Gunmakers who were awarded Gold Medals at the Universal Exhibition in Paris, 1878

On June 12, 1879 at the suit of creditor with name Laroque began the bankruptcy process of partnership. In 1880 the Lebeau Brothers company went bankrupt. Apparently, in 1887 Jules died, after which Augustee Lebeau founded a new company — Armes Fines. Augustee Lebeau (Augustee Lebeau Fine Guns). In 1894 it was located in a small house near St Jacques Cathedral, on Rue Vertbois 52. In the same year Guillaume Defourny quitted Lebeau’s company, to start two years later his own firm, Defourny-Sevrin. Why did this gunmaker, who was to rise to fame in future, leave Auguste Lebeau’s employment, we will probably never know. Courally writes that Lebeau developed «his own method of gun production which had its followers and was studied at the gun school”. Very few guns by the maker survived. M. Nobily claims that Lebeau’s side-by-sides were mostly boxlocks, with or without side plates, some featured Greener’s crossbolt.

тттLiege, Rue Vertbois 52.

23Guillaume Defourney’s letter of recommendation signed by Auguste Lebeau.

Auguste Lebeau died on July 23, 1896; it is said that he was childless and single. On January 2, 1897 a «Credit Union» cooperative filed a suit against the heirs to Lebeau Brothers company, regarding a debt of 14766 Franc 22 Santimes. The list of heirs included Marie Lebeau, who was possibly the wife or daughter of Jules Lebeau — provided that Augustee was really single and childless.

After Augustee Lebeau’s death the company passed over to Ferdinand Courally. Considering what was said above, it is likely that he bought the company from the heirs or the creditors, because so far no evidence has been found that any connection existed between Courally and Lebeau while the latter was still alive. According to the Liege Proofhouse, from 1896 to 1902 Courally was recorded as a maker of guns at Rue Fond des Tawes, 17-21. Interestingly, the Proofhouse itself (BANC D’EPREUVES DES ARMES A FEU) was and still is located on that street. From 1897 to 1904 Courally was listed at one more address: Rue Mosselman, 51-53. By contrast with the residential house at Rue de Vertbois 52, both addresses referred to real manufacturing premises.

рррLiege, Rue Fond des Tawes 17-21

Rue Mosselman 51-53Liege, Rue Mosselman 51-53

It looks like Courally, as he started his business after moving from St. Etennes to Lieges, used Lebeau’s name as a promotional tool. When was the Armes de Grand Lux. Aug. Lebeau-Courally Company founded — in 1896, 1897 or at a later date? Nobody can answer this question with certainty. The catalogue for the 1900 Paris World Expo features a Ferd. Courally Sr d`Aug. Lebeau (Ferdinand Courally, successor to August Lebeau), but there’s no sign of Lebeau-Courally. How can this be explained? According to Ferdinand Courally’s book, brand names Lebeau and Courally were property of the Webley-Lebeau-Courally Company, established in 1902 as a joint venture with The Webley and Scott Revolver and Arms Company Ltd. The new company was listed at Rue Fond des Tawes 17-21. The cooperation with Webley, which seemed to stem from the desire to find a partner to help break into the military weapons market during Belgium’s colonial expansion, lasted until the beginning of the First World War. In 1919 Ferdinand Courally left the company and settled in France, where he had been staying in 1914-1918 when Belgium was occupied by the Germans. Here enter Philippe Reeve and the SA Continentale Auguste Lebeau-Courally Company, but that’s another story.

placehdvPlace Hotel de Ville, St. Etienne.

Almost as little is known about Joseph Claude Ferdinand Courally as about August Lebeau. His father, who was also called Ferdinand, traded in silk and was a broker at the St. Etienne Goods Exchange. The trade reference books for 1862, 1864 and 1870 list his two offices at the city’s prime locations: Place St. Charles 5, and Place Hotel de Ville 8.  Since 1890, St. Etienne records show a company  called Ferdinand Courally & Cie, dealing in hunting guns. The records don’t show if the firm made its own guns or had them made by the trade, but it is listed at the same Hotel de Ville address as Courally Sr.’s office.

1a1d1cAn example of guns retailed by Ferdinand Courally & Cie in St Etienne.

From 1889 to 1890 Courally Jr. obtained three French patents: for «a new system of hammerless gun» (№ 204896 of 03.04.1890), «a system for ejecting cartridges» (№ 208864 of 15.10.1890) and «improvements in a hammerless gun» (№ 193174 of 21.09.1889). Another French patent was granted in 1922, for «a hammerless gun with ejectors and triple bolting» (№ 552946 of 15.06.1922). Apart from that, Courally had a few Belgian patents registered in his name: for a single trigger, for a simple ejector for a double barreled gun, for an ejector mechanism mounted on a single base, for an ejector housing, etc. Courally owned a large gunmaking business with numerous employees, and it’s impossible to tell now whether they, or him, were behind the real or imaginary inventions.

иииFigure from Courally’s French patent for «a hammerless gun with ejectors and triple bolting» (№ 552946 of 15.06.1922)

Ferdinand Courally was married to Elisa Rensen, of Liege. In 1904 he and his wife were involved in a detective story widely covered by all French papers. Elisa had a sister, whose second husband was a Messier Syveton, member of Paris City Council. He was either murdered or committed a suicide. The widow accused the late husband of sexual harassment to her daughter from her first marriage. Courally gave testimony supporting M-me Syveton’s involvement in the murder of her husband. In 1911 he divorced his wife.

001Cover of Courally’s book.

More confusion is caused by Courally’s 1931 book Les Armes de Chasse et Leur Tir (hunting guns and shooting). In the signature to the foreword he styles himself as «firearms expert to the Civil Tribunal in Seine, former gun maker of Liege». It’s clear that this book was Courally’s last word in his 40-years career, and understanding it as the last ticket to eternity, he was possibly trying to be as honest and unbiased as possible. He writes in the foreword that the only thing he can do is to add his experience to the works of his predecessors. The book, however, is nothing special in terms of technical knowledge. The works of the Russian writer Sergei Buturlin are much deeper, and he wasn’t even a gunmaker. All Courally has to say about his supposed predecessor Lebeau is a brief characteristic, not in his own words, in the «Additions» section of the book, one of a long list of people who had something to do with gunmaking since 1807. What was that, blatant ingratitude? Maybe, but all pieces fit the puzzle as soon as you assume that the two gunmakers barely knew each other, or were complete strangers. This is only a hypothesis, but it is at least as well supported by evidence as the claim that Courally entered Lebeau’s firm as early as 1894.

008Drawing from Courally’s French patent № 204896 от 03.04.1890: the «new system of hammerless gun» was actually quite old, known in Britain since 1881.

Courally’s inventions as he lists them in his book come down to the following: principles of barrel polishing machine (machines built on this principle were used by the Clair brothers, inventors of an autoloading gun, and in August Francotte’s shop); an apparatus for drying black powder, a device for counting shot pellets, a pressure gun with replaceable firing pins for experiments with the shape and length of the striker and force of the strike, a «percudinagraph» (device for measuring the force of the strike of the firing pin), a system of a hammerless gun (Patent № 204896). But there’s nothing about «Courally’s ejector», which figures prominently in the company catalogues next to Deeley ejector. The numbers in an oval with inscription «eject. Courally brevete», stamped on the fore-end of Lebeau-Courally guns, fit into a system. These are certainly not patent numbers, and are most likely the ejectors’ serial numbers. This assumption may not explain everything, but together with observations on the ejector design it does allow to come to certain conclusions. Unfortunately, it’s not always possible to see the inside of the mechanism, and so the exterior is in most cases all that one can go by. Here’s what we get if we set the ejector numbers against the gun numbers and the years they were made:

Ejector №  — Gun № — Mfg Year:

 384 — 34962 — 1904,

430 — 34548 — 1903,

647 — 35863 — 1907,

1407 — 37222 — 1909,

1688 — 37639 — 1910,

2010 —  38201 — 1912,

2721 — 39264 — 1913, 

2896 — 40066 — 1920.

1Courally’s Ejector No 384

2Courally’s Ejector No 1407

3Courally’s Ejector No 1688

462-thickbox_defaultCourally’s Ejector No 2896

To begin with, there seem to be a few variants of the ejector, so it is not clear which one of them is the «Courally’s patent» that, if you believe some writers, was used by all makers of Liege. Then, as far as I can judge from the exterior, all these ejectors were variants of well-known designs. Courally is said to be the inventor of the modification Deeley`s ejector (1884 patent) in which both springs are cocked by a single slider which moves forward by pressure of the shoulder of the action as the gun is opened. This may really be a Belgian invention, but so far no evidence has been found that Courally had anything to do with it.  In his book Courally  lists  ejectors of Holland, Needham, Greener, Deeley and Purdey, but  never writes a word about his own.

???????????????????????????????WORKPICTURES315P1040683 (2)Ejector from a Lebeau-Courally gun (top), and its design. Not stamped «Courally’s ejector».

DSC_0503Ejector of August Francotte gun. No trace of Courally.

Why weren’t numerous Belgian «brevetes» (patents), including Courally’s own, mentioned in his book? The answer to the question lies in the history of industrial and intellectual copyright protection. In the beginning there was the 1883 Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property. Before WWI it was amended twice: in 1900 and in 1911. In Belgium and France there was a widespread practice of the so-called «S.G.D.G» patents, which meant «without government’s guarantee». The text of the law was drawn by Napoleon and said: «without selection, at the risk of patentees, and without guarantee of existence, novelty of invention, or truthfulness of description». This law made it possible to claim a patent for any design, on declarative principle, no matter if there were or weren’t similar patents in, say, Britain. During his cooperation with The Webley and Scott Revolver and Arms Company Ltd., and being interested in export of his guns, Courally could have become more careful with his «brevetes». It shouldn’t have been different to revise them, as there already existed not only patent laws but also patent lawyers.

8889clipThree brands of steel were registered by Webley-Lebeau-Courally company in the International Bureau of Industrial Property Protection in July 1913.

Courally’s company never produced steel. All metal was purchased from John Cockerill & Cie. Nevertheless, it didn’t stop Ferdinand Courally from patenting his own trade marks for steel: «Wahlreyne compressed steel» (the most expensive) and «Leugrann steel» (the cheapest) in 1896, and in addition «Metal Van’t Horn» (middle price) in September 1897. The price difference between barrel sets made of these brands was 50 Franks. Probably this marketing gimmick allowed Courally to gain some additional profit. In June 1913 these trade marks were registered by the International Union for the Protection of Industrial Property in Bern, Switzerland.

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????IMG_72167Great Prince M. A. Romanoff ‘s single shot rifle, by August Lebeau. From the Gatchina Arsenal gun collection.

Many people who try to identify a Lebeau-Courally gun are lost in the maze of catalogue models and trading houses’ price-currants, because they don’t know how the company operated and how orders were taken. The only thing that was positively decided on when a customer chose a model from a catalogue was whether the gun would be a sidelock, a boxlock or a droplock. Everything else was negotiated: gauge, barrel steel brand, barrel length, chamber length, chokes, shape of the frame (four different options for a boxlock), top fastener, stock shape and dimensions, ejector type and finish.

d0bdd0bed0b2d18bd0b9-d182d0bed187d0b5d187d0bdd18bd0b9-d180d0b8d181d183d0bdd0bed0ba-32List of options from Lebeau-Courally 1910 catalogue.

In addition to barrels made of Sir J. Whitworth’s Fluid Compressed Steel, one could order «wings» (side clips) on the action, single trigger, «regulated» chokes, Greener’s side safety, «folding» (hinged) front trigger, and even replace the Greener’s crossbolt with Webley’s Screw Grip, a top fastener patented by Webley in 1882. All these options except single trigger and «regulated» chokes were specified for various base models. The result was often a combination of features very remote from the catalogue description and images. It was the careful consideration of the client’s wishes and a wide variety of choices that made Lebeau-Courally different from most other makers.

d0bdd0bed0b2d18bd0b9-d182d0bed187d0b5d187d0bdd18bd0b9-d180d0b8d181d183d0bdd0bed0bad0b5-3P1000645Gun made for B. I. Winner’s «The American Shop» in Kiev and the record of this gun from Lebeau-Courally order book.

Courally successfully used a variety of marketing tricks, but his most efficient advertising weapon were perhaps the guns made for various royal families of Europe. This, I believe, is one of the explanations for the never-ending interest to August Lebeau’s guns. To be fair, August Lebeau was making guns for the royalty long before Courally entered the scene. The Gatchina Arsenal collection includes a small-bore five-barrel volley gun and a single-barrel rifle (kipplauf) that belonged to Great Prince Mikhail Alexandrovich Romanoff (1878-1918). These guns were ordered through Jean Adolph Larderet. I think it was Jean Adolph, because his father, Jean Mary, died in 1888, and it’s hard to assume that this rifle, a kipplauf in modern terms, could have been ordered for a child. Remember the rifle’s serial number — 3482, we’re going to need it later. In 1897, a number of Lebeau guns, with serial numbers 31047, 31292, 31418, 31440, 31848, 31873, 31880 and 500, entered the trials that took place as part of the Second Firearms Exhibition held by the Imperial Technical Society. The protocols list the maker’s name as Lebeau, which confirms the fact that Courally preferred to stay in his predecessor’s shadow at first. The trials were won by Feodor Matska, and Courally’s guns were awarded the Great Silver Medal. I believe the capability of Courally’s two premises allowed him to make up to 1000 guns a year. The Great Prince’s gun could have been made from 1892 (when the Prince was 14) to 1896 (when Lebeau died). Let us assume it was made at the earliest date, in 1892. If Courally continued Lebeau’s serial numbers, then in four years the company made 27500 guns or so, nearly 7000 guns a year. I don’t find this figure realistic, as it is some 10 to 20 times higher than the average yearly production from 1900 to 1914. Therefore, Courally introduced his own serial number sequence. Following this logic, only one gun made by Lebeau took part in the trials, the one with the serial number 500. I venture to suggest that Courally started his sequence with some arbitrary number, for example, 30,000. The Prince’s rifle featured a mark «L&C, Bilg(s?)». The same stamp can be seen on a hunting single shot gun with a removable barrel. It is known that «Lebeau freres&Cie» patented a hunting gun with «canon mobile» — «removable barrel».

zvy4px2e3mw74A gun with a removable barrel by «Lebeau Brothers».

Lebau-Courally Model 98 is called «The Great Russian» in honor of the Emperor Nicolas II, who allegedly ordered from Larderet a pair of 20-gauge boxlocks with serial numbers 31831 and 31832. Many, including Madame Moermanns, tried to trace down these guns, but did not succeed. Let’s try to get it straight. The documents from the State Historical Archive testify that all business with the Larderet was handled by bureaucrats from the Ministry of Imperial Court, and definitely not by the Emperor or the Great Princes directly. Nobody was obliged to tell the supplier, even the appointed maker to the court, for whom this or that order was meant. All we know about guns №31831 and №31832 comes from Lebeau-Courally catalogues. Evidently, Larderet placed the order before the 1897 St. Peterburg Expo. The whole Courally’s case rests on one photograph showing the Czar with the Lebeau in his hands. The photograph was made in 1899 in the Spala estate (Skernevice, Poland), where Nicolas II hunted red deer. We can see the royal couple «on the peg». The same photograph in the Lebeau-Courally catalogue is captioned «H.I.M. Nicolas II, Emperor of Russia, hunts with his pair of Lebeau-Courally guns». It is difficult to identify the gun from a photograph, especially a retouched one. But if you look close, you’ll see dramatic difference between the original and the catalogue images. In the latter case the gun was substantially retouched to show the shape of the frame and even the pins of the lock. Nicolas II could have actually hunted with his Lebeaus, but the only evidence for it is this single photograph. So far, no trace of these guns was found in the Court’s property lists, or in any other documents.

002It is assumed that on this photograph Nicolas II holds a gun by August Lebeau. Spala estate, Poland, 1899.

1002Parts of the photographs. Left — original, right — from the catalogue.

Jean Mary Larderet was the first of the family of St. Petersburg gun dealers to get the Royal Warrant. But who came up with the «Russian» names for Lebeau-Courally’s models, which first appear in the 1910 catalogue? It is possible that the names were styled by «the young Larderet», who was also called Jean Mary, like his father. Here is the list of these models.

002DSC_0052Model № 78  Prince Kourakine (Prince Anatoly Alexandrovich Kourakine (1845 – 1936), Actual State Councilor, Master of the Horse to the Imperial Court (presumably)).

005Модель № 91 Grand Duc (The Great Princes Nicolas Nicolaevich (1856-1929) and Alexis Mihailovich (1866-1933)).

???????????????????????????????Модель № 95 Prince Gorchakoff (His Highness the Prince Konstantin Alexandrovich Gorchakov (1841 -1926), Master of the Horse to the Imperial Court (presumably)).

006Модель № 96 Cheremeteff  (Count Dmitry Sergeevich Cheremeteff (1869 – 1943) — Aide-de-Camp to Nicolas II).

003№ 98 Grand Russe.  H.I.M. the Emperor Nicolas II. (1868 – 1918).

004Model № 101 Prince Koudacheff (Prince Sergei Vladimirovich Koudacheff (1863 – 1933) — Actual State Councilor, Chamberlain to the Court (presumably)).

A few words about «other royalty». In 1910, Nicolas II and Wilhelm II, Kaiser of Germany, had a «diplomatic» hunt together at the Czar’s Spala estate. Prior to this event, owing to the effort of Courally’s German agent Max Barella, Wilhelm received a gun, Model 97, which was later called «The Kaiser». The catalogue for the 1900 World Expo mentions «The King of Italy». This has to be Umberto I, who was assassinated in July 1900, while the Expo opened in April, and not his successor, Victor Emmanuel III, who was known as a passionate hunter and shot with Nicolas II in Italy in the autumn of 1900. The 1910 catalogue features an image of Alphonse XIII, King of Spain, who presumably holds in his hands a Lebeau-Courally gun № 33108. However, this image is actually a postcard! Who says that Alphonse XIII holds a Lebeau and no other gun? It could have been Edward Schilling of Barselona, a German-born gunmaker, senior partner of the D. Eduardo Schilling y Monfort Company, and Courally’s agent. Through him Courally supplied Alphonse XIII with a gun, Model 100, which was later dubbed «Grand d`Espagne». In 1907 Schilling took an order from Prince Charles of Aragon. There were no other orders from any European sovereigns until Charles, Prince-Regent of Belgium, bought a 1940-made gun as a gift to General Charles de Gaulle.

Alfonso XIIIThe famous photograph is actually a postcard. This one was sent from the Algeciras Conference on March 21, 1906.

So much for gunmaking by appointment to the royal courts of Europe, but  Courally managed to use this fact to maximum. Advertising his product, agents in various European cities never ceased to remind their prospective customers that Lebeau-Courally made guns for kings and emperors. To be fair, the quality of Lebeau-Courally guns was high enough for this status, but it was not higher than the work of other Liege houses, and definitely not above the best gun makers of West London.

To sum it up: August Lebeau had nothing to do with the rise of Lebeau-Courally company, as he died in 1896. Ferdinand Courally used his name for promotion, and achieved almost unbelievable success in record short time. No other gunmaker before or after him could match this performance. I’m afraid we’ll never know whether Courally was a great gunmaker or engineer, but that he was an extraordinary businessman is beyond any doubt. It’s no accident that Claude Gaier, a renowned expert in Belgian guns, writes that «the firm of Lebeau-Courally was formed as a partnership between a lock-maker and a commercial traveller».

With firsthand knowledge of Lebeau-Courally weapons, I never cease to be amazed how stereotypes prevail over reason in many people. The notorious phrase «August Lebeau is gunmaker by appointment to the afore-mentioned royalty, and this is his best recommendation » has placed the Lebeau-Courally company above all criticism and a notch above any other Belgian gunmaker. Perhaps it’s the right time to reconsider this evaluation.

BRITTE, BURY AND OTHERS

i3ndexGun No 1214, a 20 gauge Anson&Deeley boxlock with an extra .35 Remington rifle barrel set. «JB under crown» trademark on action flats. Sold at Bonhams auction for £2,040 in 2010. Image by bonhams.com

In the previous articles about Belgian gunmakers («Brancquaert, Defourney and Others», «Lebeau-Courally: Between Truth and Fiction») I dealt with a number of old, but often repeated misconceptions. Now I have to return to this issue again.

Belgian gunmaking was based on division of labor, which allowed any entrepreneur to become a «manufacturer» of sporting guns, by purchasing parts and outsourcing jobs to homeworkers. That’s why the names of the real masters: barrel borers, actioners, stockers, etc., remain in the shadow of the people who owned numerous big and small companies. In the mass of Belgian hunting guns of the same grade, none stand out by some exceptionally high level of quality; all differences are usually in options and decoration. What’s more, sometimes identical guns come under different brands. There are a few producers whose names have always been associated with high quality: Courally, Francotte, Forgerone, Tonneay, Christoph, Donckier, Duchateau, Masquelier, Thirifays, Defourny, Janssen, Britte, Ronge, Lajot, Cordy, Mahillon, Bernard, Galand, Brancquaert. Jules Bury has always been included in this list.

001
Liege, 1914. A homeworker and his family. Working for 12 hours making revolver hammers, the homeworker earned 9 francs a day. A family of 10 lived in one room, which served as workshop, kitchen and bedroom all in one. Image by Musee de la Vie Wallonne.

In Wallonia, the French-speaking part of Belgium where the city of Liege is situated, Bury is one of the most common family names. Untangling complicated ties of kinship in large Walloon families is not an easy task.

1840List of Liege gunmakers, 1840.

On March 5, 1811, the wife of Lambert Bury, a miner of Liege, gave birth to a son, Michael. On coming of age, Michael became a gunmaker and moved to Maastricht, where in 1846 he married Marie Joanne van Hoesbruck. Michael Bury died on January 17, 1887, survived by 6 children. Among them was Jean Joseph Bury, born May 16, 1853. Jean became a gunmaker, after his father. In August 1893 he moved to Herstal, a small town near Liege. It should be noted, perhaps, that Maastricht is only 30 km away from Liege.

A firearms manufacturer called J. L. Bury lived on rue Pont des Arches, 966, Liege in 1827. In 1840, the records show another firearms manufacturer, Francois Bury, at the same address. At the same time, a gunmaking company called «Bury the Sons and Donckier» was in business in Saint-Leonard, an outskirt of Liege.

Another Liege gunmaker called Jean Bury was born on August 18, 1840. On September 21, 1861, he married Marie Catherine Guillet, of whom he had a daughter, also called Mary. He died on February 8, 1890.

In 1855, a gunmaker called Jean George Francois Bury was living on St Leonard, 137, Liege.

The family of firearm engravers Bury was well known in Wallonia. Toussaint Bury was born in Liege on July 15, 1849. He was a Renaissance man who left a noticeable influence on Walloon culture. He combined the work of an engraver with interest in literature, and comprised a Walloon-French technological dictionary for engravers. His nephew Jean Bury, born on January 13, 1867 in Liege, was also an engraver. After his uncle’s death in 1918, the nephew updated his uncle’s dictionary and republished it under his own name. Jean Bury died in 1940.

002Liege, 1914. Engravers, as a rule, worked from home. Image by Musee de la Vie Wallonne

It is common knowledge that the Olympic Games of 1900 took place in Paris, France, as part of the World Fair. A Belgian athlete called Jules Desire Bury, of Liege, born 1862, competed in the rifle shooting events, taking the silver in Free Rifle at 200 meters and the bronze in National Rifle.

Let us now turn to the Registry of Liege Proof House. It lists Nicolas Bury from 1868 to 1890, Jean Bury from 1890 to 1896, Antoine Bury from 1920 to 1939 and Jules Bury from 1896 to 1947. Therefore, the possible line of kinship is: Jean George Francois Bury (father, one of «Bury Sons and Donckier») — Jean Bury (son) — Jules Bury (grandson). It’s interesting that Jules Bury, like his grandfather might have done before him, also formed a partnership with a member of the Donckier family. Whether Bury the Olympic athlete who defended the colors of Belgium was the same person as Bury the gunmaker we shall probably never know, but some facts suggest it is quite probable.

bouquette arnold-01Theophile Britte. Images by littlegun.be

Let us digress from the Bury family for a while. Theophile Britte was born on July 9, 1874. On February 2, 1896, he and his brother Lambert registered a firearms manufacturing company «Britte Freres» (Britte Brothers), which, at first, was a small workshop with about 10 employees. On September 17, 1923, Theophile Britte, Jules Bury, and the Masquelier brothers formed an anonymous limited liability company «Establissments Britte». The new enterprise produced precision mechanisms, sets of gauges, and sporting arms «in the white» (mecanique de precision, outillages calibres, armes des chasse en blanc). The company did not make barrels, purchasing them from well-known and reliable suppliers. They offered «in the white» assembly sets for 12, 16 and 20 gauge shotguns, both Anson&Deeley and H&H type sidelocks, as well as the original «Super Britte» side-opening over/unders patented in 1931. The guns could be supplied in the finished state as well, with the help of outsourcing to houseworkers and smaller firms. The number of over/unders made under Britte’s own brand does not exceed 250.

br4The produce of «Etablissements Britte»: an assembly set of a H&H type sidelock side-by-side «in the white». Image by Steven Dodd Hughes.

ch6The same assembly set as a finished gun. Image by Steven Dodd Hughes

The idea of making high quality assembly sets «in the white» proved a big success. To satisfy the demand of customers in France, a division in Saint Etienne was founded. The quality of Britte’s assembly sets was so high that even British firms bought them. However, the world economic crisis played its part, and in 1936 the French division was closed. Then gunmaking stopped in Liege as well. Theophile Britte took into his company his son George (October 4, 1900 – September 13, 1949), and son-in law Lois Dessart (June 25, 1898 – April 12, 1932). The latter had a son, also called Lois, born 19.05.1924. Lois Dessart Jr joined his grandfather’s company on August 22, 1941, and headed it on September 13, 1949 after the death of his uncle, George Britte. Theophile Britte died on October 6, 1945, aged 71. Nowadays the Britte company, headed by Vincent Pissard, the son-in-law of Lois Dessard Jr., works for the aerospace industry, and is part of the international Mustad group. Before the Nazis occupied Belgium in 1940, the workers carefully packed the finished guns, assembly sets and spare parts in boxes, and hid them in the basement of Dessard’s family mansion. There they stayed until 1999, when Guy Bignell of Griffin and Howe learned about their existence. Bignell purchased the lot, and also the rights for the Jules Bury brand name. He got 17 finished Super Brittes, and 16 more «in the white», 17 finished H&H type side-by-sides and 155 more «in the white», and five boxes of parts. This treasure was called — probably in the name of marketing — «Jules Bury’s collection», although, of course, Bury himself had nothing to do with it. The guns from this «collection» sell for a pretty penny, including the «in the white» sets finished by such American gunmakers as Steven Dodd Hughes. The interest to the new guns from «Bury’s collection» led to an increase in prices for older Bury guns, not only in the USA, but also, somewhat surprisingly, in Europe and even Russia. Precise attribution of these guns becomes, therefore, an urgent problem.

indgexA Super Britte by Auguste Francotte. You can buy a similar gun today from such companies as Jules Bury, Lebeau-Courally, Paul Scholberg.

It is well known that Jules Bury had two styles of barrel inscriptions: «Jules Bury F-ant A Liege» and «Jules Bury Arq-sier A Liege», meaning, respectively, «a manufacturer» or «a gunmaker» of Liege. With these words on the barrels, identification is usually not a problem. However, on some guns there is the trademark stamp «JB under crown», which is often attributed to Jules Bury. It is worthy of note, that guns on which there’s both the inscription and the trademark do not exist. At the same time, there are numerous guns featuring the «JB under crown» stamp and signed by such names as Charles Masquelier and Louis Christophe.

1111111711A Jules Bury self-opener.

There are guns on Purdey by Beesley’s Patent self-opening system stamped with «JB under crown». At the same time, there are guns on the original Belgian self-opening system (see my article «Self-Opening Breechloading Systems») without this trademark, but with «Jules Bury» on the barrels, or without any maker’s mark or stamp whatsoever. Apparently, Jules Bury was not the inventor of that system, because no patents were ever granted to his name in Belgium or anywhere else. As for the trademark itself, it exists in numerous variants, both stamped and engraved.

baiwir joseph-10The «JB under crown» trademark was used before Jules Bury was even born.

3b1981afThis stamp did not belong to Jules Bury.

fn 1900 jb couronne-12On this Browning, the trademark is engraved.

christophe louis hall ant-17Actions of three different guns stamped «JB under crown»: top left Louis Christophe made before 1922; bottom left 1925 vintage; right 1929 vintage.
IMG_1628IMG_11627Purdey-by-Beesley’s-patent type self-opener signed by Louis Christophe with «JB under crown» trademark, 1933. Engraved by H. Leukers. Image by Jan Bliki.

The experts on Belgian guns marked down another interesting feature. On most sidelocks signed by Jules Bury or stamped with «JB under crown» trademark, the bottom part of the action, where it meets the stock, has a furrow, and the stock is made with a bolster which fits it (see pictures below). However, this way of stock inletting was used by many makers, that is why I think the claim that this is a characteristic feature of Bury’s guns is unjustified.

706-thickbox_default713-thickbox_default957-thickbox_default952-thickbox_defaultTwo guns by Thirifays, circa 1925, with «JF under crown» stamped on the water table industrially, with the ‘bolster’ stock inletting at the bottom of the action. Image by steniron.com

img_2071A gun by N.Bodson with «bolster» stock inletting at the action floor.

So, should you lose your head and rush in when you see «Jules Bury» or the «JB under crown» trademark on a gun? I don’t think so. Not only because the guns so branded aren’t any superior to others made out of Britte assembly kits…

Bury 12A 12 gauge gun № 6593/7199 with «JB under crown» trademark. Sold at Bonhams in 2014 for £1,000. Image by bonhams.com

«Pandectes périodiques: recueil de jurisprudence, de législation et de doctrine» is a collection of legal data including sample court decisions, regularly published in Belgium since the late XIX century. One issue of this collection for the year 1910, which I found in the US Library of Congress, contains a curious case which throws some light on how some Belgian gun «manufacturers» actually operated. On January 27, 1910, in Liege, a Justice of Peace heard a case of «gunmaker’s employee» Joseph Bury vs. «La Zurich» insurance company. The case states that the plaintiff, Joseph Bury, accidentally shot himself in the gun store belonging to his brother, Jules Bury, while unloading a Browning pistol which he was demonstrating to a customer. The plaintiff claimed it an accident at workplace, and demanded the insurance payment liable to him as a manufacturing industry worker with salary under 2,400 francs a year under a Belgian act of 1903. The insurance company, however, denied the claim, stating that the case does not fall under the act. This is what it argued: While it is true that Joseph Bury was injured at work, however, his employer Jules Bury does not have a gun making facility, he only sells guns, ammunition and related products, and controls the performance of his orders by homeworkers. Apart from that, Jules Bury sells long guns and pistols by other makers. There is a gunsmithing shop for repairs of hunting firearms at the store. The whole workforce of the company is limited to the two Bury brothers and an apprentice. The accident happened in the showroom, not in the gunsmithing shop.

cgglip

cclip
1canvasGuns signed by Jules Bury on the barrels (without «JB under crown» trademark), top to bottom: a 8x60R double rifle № 8225 калибра 8 x 60 R, a 9.3x74R double rifle № 8044 калибра 9.3 x 74R, an 8-gauge shotgun № 78

9387799_2A 28-28-.35 drilling № 7721 signed «Jules Bury» and «WAFFEN-FRANKONIA-WUR/BURG»

Геринг
This .405 Win double rifle by Bury № 6640 belonged to Herman «Fat Pig» Goering and was sold for $9,000

Nevertheless, the court decided for the plaintiff, justifying it by the following: According to the list of trades and professions published by Belgian Ministry of Labor in 1902, a gunmaker is defined not only as one who makes firearms or parts of firearms, but also as one who makes a profit by buying and selling firearms. According to Item 2 of the above-mentioned work accident compensation act, gunmaker’s employees fall under its jurisdiction. Besides, Jules Bury takes orders for making hunting guns under his own brand. He is a licensed gunmaker, purchases parts and materials, places orders, personally patterns and sights in the guns he sells, and submits these guns to Liege Proof House in the established order. The precedent statement runs: «A merchant who sells hunting guns and related equipment, as well as partly makes the firearms he sells, is de facto practicing gunmaking, and therefore falls under the provisions of the compensation for work-related accidents act. This act is applicable to employees hired at daily rates, acting under supervision of his employer, and engaged, directly or indirectly, in manual labor, and therefore exposed to the same risks as regular employees». This is, as a matter of fact, the answer to the question if Jules Bury was a gunmaker. By Belgian law he was; however, he didn’t actually work at the bench, didn’t wield a smoke lamp, file or chisel. At least, not in 1910. Probably it was not because he couldn’t or wouldn’t, but because he didn’t have to. Could some crisis make Jules Bury resort to manual labor? Probably yes. Could the «JB under crown» stamp belong to his firm? It could. Don’t forget about Joseph Bury, who was in charge of gunsmithing, and whose attempt to replace his brother for the sale of the handgun almost ended tragically. Jules Bury traded and took his orders from a shop in Passage Lemonier, the biggest and most prestigious department store in Liege, resembling modern GUM in Moscow.

liege_passage-lemonnier_2Entrance to Passage Lemonnier, Liege, 1902.

Bury’s shop was No 11. Next door, No 13, was the shop of Marcelle Donkier. In 1938 Bury and Donkier merged under Bury’s brand. In 1947 a new company, Bury-Donkier was established. It existed until 1964 and was then purchased by Charles Masquelier.
MAHILLON LEUKERS-ENGRAVEDH. Leukers  Jean Duchateau

Guns engraved for H.Mahillon (top) and Jean Duchateau (bottom) by H. Leukers

ch1«A typical Bury», or, to be precise, a Christoph. With «JB under crown» trademark; engraved by Schoffeniels. According to littlegun.be (who provided the image) it was proofed in 1955. Perhaps, the gun was shelved for some time.

8360665Another «typical Bury», 1925. With «JB under crown» trademark. Image by A. Bazylev.

cli3pJules Bury, without a doubt.

B-D 20clipA 20 gauge by Bury-Donkier. With B-D trademark.

What conclusions can and ought to be made, aside from the eternal «do not make an idol for yourself»? First, Jules Bury was NO DIFFERENT from dozens of other entrepreneurs — who called themselves «makers» — of Belgium. Second, it was hard to go wrong with the high quality Britte assembly kits, and so no matter what name they were sold under — whether Bury, or Christoph, or Masquelier, or Donckier, or Mahillon, or Duchateau — it is (at least after 1923) the same gun, and there were other makers for the trade in Liege apart from Britte. This is why the auctioneers single out Francotte and Lebeau and put the rest of Belgian gunmakers under the same heading, and that, I believe, is mostly due to inertia and reluctance to see the obvious, an maybe only to give credit to the founders of the companies and their past merits. To end with a bit of advice: if you are after a vintage Belgian gun, it’s not worth it to chase famous names. Look at condition, fit and patterns, not the stamps and inscriptions on the gun.